References sorted by date

All papers (but videos) related to biometric spoofing & aliveness detection are sorted per year.

Sorry about the dead links. That's very difficult to maintain! From time to time, I have archived some web pages, as the original website and/or company have disappeared...



Date Title Author Original link Modality Comment
1994 Vital signs of identity B.Miller generalBiometrics in 1994, a few word about aliveness.
1996 3M Biosentry ultimate
3M Biosentry ultimate (b)
3M fingerprintLikely the oldest device against fakes: a fingerprint reader with optical plethysismography AND electrocardiogram.
1998 Jun Six Biometric Devices Point The Finger At Security Network Computing fingerprint1) latent prints + dry toner from a laser printer + adhesive tape + transparency / photocopier. + wetting the ink side of the transparency and placing it on the platen.
2) silicone + wax mold
1999 Determination of Vitality From A Non-Invasive Biomedical Measurement for Use in Integrated Biometric Devices Reza Derakhshani
fingerprintUsing a sensor that is composed of an array of capacitors, this method identifies the vitality of a fingerprint by looking at a series of fingerprints captured during a 5-second time frame and detects a perspiration pattern over the human skin.
2000
2000 Sep Biometrical Fingerprint Recognition: Don't get your fingers burned
Spoofing fingerprints As easy as 1,2,3? (presentation Biometrics 2001)
Ton van der Putte
Jeroen Keuning
fingerprintOne of the oldest paper about fake fingers.
2000 Can We Make Artificial Fingers That Fool Fingerprint Systems? (Part II) K. Yamada
H. Matsumoto
T. Matsumoto
fingerprint9 types of fingerprint devices commercially available, all of them accept artificial fingers which are made of gelatinous gummies.
2001
2001 How to trick a bright field optical fingerprint capturing sensor... Tekey Research Group No more available fingerprintSpoof an optical sensor using latent prints captured with graphite + adhesive tape, with cooperation.
2001 Jan Biometrics: yes or no? Martin Kákona
fingerprintSpoofing with a stamp (+ graphite), breath reactivation of latent print.
2002
2002 Spoofing and Anti-Spoofing Measures Stephanie A. C. Schuckers
generalMainly fingerprint in fact.
2002 An Investigation Into the Vulnerability of the Siemens ID Mouse Professional Version 4 Aaron Ligon generalA check of the C'T test and Matsumoto results: latent print difficult, gummy confirmed.
2002 “Impact of Artificial ‘Gummy’ Fingers on Fingerprint Systems”,
  • Original paper in HTML
  • The japanese paper in PDF
  • The 2002 presentation
  • Gummy and Conductive Silicone Rubber Fingers / Importance of Vulnerability Analysis
  • T. Matsumoto
    H. Matsumoto
    K. Yamada
    S. Hoshino
    fingerprintThe infamous paper related to gummy bears from Matsumoto (Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4677, January, 2002)
    2002 Determination of vitality from a non-invasive biomedical measurement for use in fingerprint scanners R.Derakhshani
    S.Schuckers
    L.Hornaka
    L.O'Gorman
    fingerprintDetection of a perspiration pattern over the fingertip skin (see also the 1999 Thesis)
    2002 Nov Body Check
    (c't 11/2002, page 114 - Biometrie)
    Lisa Thalheim
    Jan Krissler
    Peter-Michael Ziegler

    Körperkontrolle
    fingerprint
    iris
    face
    Memorizing passwords is out. Laying your finger on a sensor or peering into a webcam can suffice to gain you immediate access to a system...We have tested eleven products for you.
    2002 DigitalPersona U.are.U Personal fingerprint scanner Dan's Data fingerprintFaking the U.are.U with putty. (source of Thinking Putty defeats Fingerprint Scanners!)
    2003
    2003 Biometric liveness testing in Biometrics, J. D. Woodward Valorie Valencia general
    2003 Evaluation of Fingerprint Readers: Environmental factors, Human Factors, & Liveness detecting capability H. Kim, H. Kang
    B. Lee, D. Shin
    J. Kim
    fingerprintSome tests of liveness detection using gummy finger and silicon fingers.
    2003 A Study on Performance Evaluation of the Liveness Detection for Various Fingerprint Sensor Modules H. Kim, H. Kang
    B. Lee, D. Shin
    J. Kim
    fingerprintSome tests of liveness detection using gummy finger and silicon fingers.
    2003 Evaluation of biometric security systems against artificial fingers Johan Blommé fingerprintLong paper with a section about fake fingers.
    2003 Feb Determination of vitality from a non-invasive biomedical measurement for use in fingerprint scanners Reza Derakhshania
    Stephanie Schuckers
    Larry A. Hornak
    Lawrence O'Gorman
    fingerprintDetection of a perspiration pattern over the fingertip skin identifies the vitality of a fingerprint
    2003 Time-Series Detection of Perspiration as a Liveness Test in Fingerprint Devices Stephanie Schuckers & als fingerprintDetecting fake fingers using perspiration.
    2003 Issues for Liveness Detection in Biometrics Stephanie Schuckers & als fingerprintDetecting fake fingers using perspiration.
    2003 Mar Hacking fingerprints:
    - Using grease stains on the scanner
    - Creating an artificial finger using the actual finger
    - Creating an artificial finger using a latent fingerprint
    - The original article: Fooling Fingerprint Scanners - Biometric Vulnerabilities of the Precise Biometrics 100 SC Scanner
    Antti Kaseva
    Antti Stén
    fingerprintHacking fingerprints contains 3 web pages. The first page describes how reveal a latent fingerprint directly left on the sensor (tests unsuccessful). The second page describes how make a fake finger with its own finger (tests successful). The third page describes how create a fake finger from a latent fingerprint.
    2003 Avoiding replay-attacks in a face recognition system using head-pose estimation Frischholz, R.W.
    Werner, A.
    faceThe user is required to look into a certain direction, which is randomly chosen by the system (challenge/response).
    2003 Sample Images can be Independently Restored from Face Recognition Templates (IEEE version) Andy Adler face(not aliveness) .
    2003 Adding liveness detection to the hand geometry scanner Musat C Crihalmeanu handThe method used for detection is Photo-Plethysmography.
    2004
    2004 Gummy finger and paper iris: An update Matsumoto fingerprint
    iris
    The updated presentation in 2004. Paper iris added.
    2004 Jan Attacks on Biometric Systems: A Case Study in Fingerprints Umut Uludag
    Anil K. Jain
    fingerprintMostly climb-hill attack.
    2004 Apr Novel spectroscopy-based technology for biometric and liveness verification (presentation) Kristin Nixon
    Robert Rowe & als
    fingerprintLumidigm reads the skin spectrum.
    2004 May
    Report on fingerprint aliveness detection and fake prevention methods A.Antonelli
    D.Baldisserra
    JF.Mainguet
    A.Tramonti
    fingerprint[Confidential document / EU contract] This report presents the state-of-the-art of fingerprint aliveness detection, fake prevention methods and significant experiences.
    2004 A wavelet based approach to detecting liveness in fingerprint scanners A.Abhyankara
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintPerspiration detection using wavelets.
    2004 Detecting Liveness in Fingerprint Scanners Using Wavelets: Results of the Test Dataset A.Abhyankara
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintPerspiration detection using wavelets: results.
    2004 Liveness Detection in Fingerprint Recognition Systems Marie Sandström fingerprintOne of the major thesis on fake fingers. Several experiments were made, focus on making artificial fingerprints in gelatin from a latent fingerprint. Nine different systems were tested and all were deceived.
    2004 Sep Fingerprint Spoof Detection using Multispectral Imaging Robert K. Rowe fingerprintA multispectral sensor is able to detect a large variety of fakes.
    2004 Oct How_to_fake_fingerprints CCC (Chaos Computer Club) fingerprintThe CCC is one of the biggest and most influential hacker organizations. Article about how to reveal a latent fingerprint and to make a thin layer with a transparency and wood glue
    2004 Dec Circumvention of fingerprint scanners Tom Fladsrud
    Roar Sollie
    fingerprintSeveral experiments on two fingerprint static sensors are described: breathing, superglue, plaster, silicone...
    2004 Dec Attacking Fingerprint Sensors A.Wiehe
    T.Søndrol
    O.Kasper
    F.Skarderud
    fingerprintSeveral different materials and techniques are detailed to reproduce artificial fingers in both consensual and unconsensual scenarios: molds, PCB, wood glue...
    2004 Aliveness Detection for Iris Biometrics Andrzej Pacut
    Adam Czajka
    iris3 solutions of eye aliveness detection: image frequency spectrum, controlled light reflection from the cornea, pupil dynamics.
    2004 May Images can be regenerated from quantized biometric match score data Andy Adler faceHill-climbing attack for face recognition
    2004 Live Face Detection Based on the Analysis of Fourier Spectra Jiangwei Li
    Yunhong Wang
    Tieniu Tan
    A.K.Jain
    faceAnalysis of Fourier spectra of a single face image or face image sequences
    2004 Liveness Verification in Audio-Video Speaker Authentication Girija Chetty
    Michael Wagner
    face
    voice
    fusion of acoustic features and visual features, automatically extracted from the lip region, to differentiate synchronous audio-video presentations from asynchronous replay attacks.
    2004 Jul Assuring liveness in biometric identity authentication by real-time face tracking J.Bigun
    H.Fronthaler
    K.Kollreider
    faceCombines real-time face tracking + localization of facial landmarks in order to improve the authenticity of fingerprint recognition.
    2005
    2005 Jun Biometrics and Security -Biometrics, is it really secure? - Jaihie Kim (BERC) generalYet another summary of spoof attacks.
    2005 User’s trust in Biometric Authentication Systems – Do not take the end-users for granted (thesis) Henning Gravnås generalThis study explores to what extent possible users of a biometric authentication system have trust in such a system. Contains a summary of spoofing techniques.
    2005 Oct Biometric liveness detection Bori Toth generalGeneral article on aliveness detection.
    2005 Liveness detection (japan) Mashahi Une general(japanese) long paper about biometrics and liveness detection.
    2005 Jan A Multispectral Sensor for Fingerprint Spoof Detection Robert K. Rowe fingerprintSame as 2004 article.
    2005 Jun Security Issues in Biometric Authentication Qinghan Xiao
    Defence R&D Canada
    fingerprint
    face
    Some spoof attack, mainly fingerprint.
    2005 Fingerprint Deformation for Spoof Detection Yi Chen
    Anil Jain
    Sarat Dass
    fingerprintMeasuring deformation between live fingers and gelatin fakes.
    2005 Liveness testing in biometric systems
    (thesis likely in Czech)
    Marek Kluz fingerprintMeasuring deformation between live fingers and gelatin fakes.
    2005 Liveness Detection Using An Intensity Based Approach in Fingerprint Scanners Bozhao Tan
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintBased on the intensity of images, static.
    2005 Multispectral Fingerprint Imaging for Spoof Detection Kristin Nixon
    Robert Rowe
    fingerprintyet another article about multispectral detection.
    2005 Wavelet based fingerprint liveness detection Y.S. Moon, J.S. Chen, K.C. Chan, K. So, K.C. Woo fingerprintWavelet analysis of the finger tip surface texture.
    2005 Nov Biosec D1.10
    Fingerprint verification prototypes
    Mainguet
    Maltoni...
    fingerprintskin-plasticity, odour and impedance based aliveness/fake detection
    2005 Dec Possibility of fraud in biometric devices Wiesaw Bicz
    OPTEL
    No more available fingerprintA list of available techniques, nothing new. Promotes ultrasonics.
    2005 Characterization, similarity score and uniqueness associated with perspiration pattern A.Abhyankara
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintPerspiration detection using wavelets: con't.
    2005 Apr Spoof-Proofing Fingerprint Systems Using Evolutionary Time-Delay Neural Networks Reza Derakhshani fingerprintA new general evolutionary temporal neural network (GETnet) for perspiration-based liveness detection is proposed.
    2005 Fake Fingerprint Detection by Odor Analysis D.Baldisserra
    A.Franco, D.Maio
    Davide Maltoni
    fingerprintUsing a gaz sensor.
    2005 Liveness Detection of Fingerprints using perspiration patterns in various environments Heeseung Choi
    Kyoungteak Choi
    , Jaihie Kim,
    fingerprintProc. ITC-CSCC, Vol. 4, pp. 1473~1474, 2005.
    2005 A New Approach to Fake Finger Detection Based on Skin Distortion Antonelli, Cappelli,
    Maio, Maltoni
    fingerprintSkin distorsion: see also Biosec D1.10 + the expanded version of the previous article.
    2005 Practical Techniques for Defeating Biometric Devices M.Lane
    L.Lordan
    fingerprint
    face
    iris
    Fingerprint: molding and casting materials + test results, iris: unsuccessful, face: easy.
    2005 Challenging fingerprint scanner Vidar Ajaxon Grønland, Havard Hasli, Jon Fredrik Pettersen fingerprintSpoofing capacitive and optical sensors with plaster, wax...
    2005 Signatures of live fingers extracted from a series of fingerprint images Ichiro Fujieda
    Etsuji Matsuyama
    Masashi Kurita
    fingerprintlook at the color change in a series of fingerprint images acquired during the course of an input action
    2005 Multi-Spectral Imaging of Fingerprints for Secure Biometric Systems Masashi Kurita
    Katsuki Tai
    Ichiro Fujieda
    fingerprint(see above)
    2005 Mar Liveness Detection for Iris Recognition Bori Toth
    Ulf Cahn von Seelen
    irisA summary of fake iris countermeasures
    (Deloitte version.
    2005 Sept Countermeasures Against Iris Spoofing with Contact Lenses Ulf Cahn von Seelen iris(Iridian version)
    2005 Anti-spoofing Liveness Detection John Daugman No more available irisA paper from the inventor of iris recognition. Same data as Bori Toth's paper.
    2005 A Study on Fake Iris Detection based on the Reflectance of the Iris to the Sclera for Iris Recognition Sungjoo Lee
    Kang Ryoung Park
    , Jaihie Kim,
    irisProc. ITC-CSCC, Vol. 4, pp. 1555~1556. 2005.
    2005 Fake Iris Detection by Using Purkinje Image Eui Chul Lee
    Kang Ryoung Park
    Jaihie Kim
    irisDetecting fake iris attack based on the Purkinje image.
    2005 Evaluating Liveness by Face Images and the Structure Tensor K.Kollreider
    H.Fronthaler
    J.Bigun
    faceAnalysing the trajectories of single parts of a live face reveal valuable information to discriminate it against a spoofed one.
    2005 Co-Inertia Analysis for “Liveness” Test in Audio-Visual Biometrics Nicolas Eveno
    Laurent Besacier
    face
    voice
    Uses the correlation that exists between the lip movements and the speech produced.
    2005 Liveness detection using cross-modal correlations in face-voice person authentication Girija Chetty
    Michael Wagner
    face
    voice
    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), for anti-imposture abilities and video replay attacks.
    2005 Audio-Video Biometric System with Liveness Checks Girija Chetty
    Michael Wagner
    face
    voice
    multimodal fusion of super resolved texture (SRT) features and 3D shape features with acoustic features for 3D audio-video person authentication systems with liveness checks.
    2005 An online biometric authentication system based on eigenfingers and finger-geometry Slobodan Ribaric
    Ivan Fratric
    handA proposal to detect aliveness from finger infrared images, so temperature information.
    2005 Fake Hands: Spoofing Hand Geometry Systems Hong Chen
    Valizadegan, Jackson, Soltysiak and Jain
    handMolded fake hand, card hand / HandKey II (Recognition Systems®).
    2006
    2006 Sep Liveness Detection Jean-François Mainguet generalIntroductory paper on aliveness detection.
    2006 Biometrics Security in Japan Kazuhiko Sumi
    Yasushi Yamazaki
    Naohisa Komatsu
    generalGeneral presentation.
    2006 Nov Liveness Assurance in Biometric Systems Johan Frederik du Preez generalHeart beat. Master of science dissertation.
    2006 Sep Fake Finger Detection by Skin Distortion Analysis Antonelli, Cappelli,
    Maio, Maltoni
    fingerprintexpanded version.
    2006 Workshop spoofing fingerprints Ton van der Putte fingerprintPresentation showing how to duplicate a fingerprint with and without the cooperation of the owner
    2006 Liveness Detection for Fingerprint Scanners Based on the Statistics of Wavelet Signal Processing Bozhao Tan
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintMethod based on the wavelet transform on the ridge signal.
    2006 Comparison of ridge- and intensity-based perspiration liveness detection methods in fingerprint scanners Bozhao Tan
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintComparison of their two methods...
    2006 Empirical Mode Decomposition Liveness Check in Fingerprint Time Series Captures A.Abhyankar
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintThe physiological phenomenon of perspiration, observed in time-series fingerprint images of live people, is used as a measure to classify ‘live’ fingers from ‘not live’ fingers.
    2006 Fingerprint liveness detection using local ridge frequencies and multiresolution texture analysis techniques A.Abhyankar
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintSingle image. Multiresolution texture analysis techniques are used to minimize the energy associated with phase and orientation maps.
    2006 Jan Biometric Devices and Fingerprint Spoofing Washington & Jefferson college
    Dr. Amanda M. Holland-Minkley
    fingerprintThe students were made several experiments in the classroom to test the reliability of a security system. They tested to reactivate a latent fingerprint on a capacitive sensor and an optical sensor, how to make molds.
    2006 Jan D6.1: Forensic Implications of Identity Management Systems FIDIS (forensic implications of identity management systems, EU contract Zeno Geradts
    Peter Sommer
    fingerprint
    iris
    hand
    vein
    In this (long) report, basics methods to make fake fingers are described: wood glue, plastic, stamp, and gelatin. These fake fingers are tested on nine devices. Iris, hand and vein is tested as well.
    2006 On the Vulnerability of Fingerprint Verification Systems to Fake Fingerprints Attacks J. Galbally-Herrero & als. fingerprint3 sensors are tested: an optical, a capacitive static state and a thermal swipe sensor. Some quality measure are done.
    2006 IFingerSys Liveness Detection Geppy Parziale fingerprinta reminder that biometrics is not 100% fool-proof.
    2006 hacking fingerprint recognition systems Pacsec 2006 fingerprintpresentation of available techniques (nothing new).
    2006 Looking for a common attack methodology focused on fingerprint authentication devices Dr. Marino Tapiador fingerprintSummary of common attack + proposal for vulnerabilities assessment
    2006 Artificial fingerprint recognition by using optical coherence tomography with autocorrelation analysis Yezeng Cheng
    Kirill V. Larin
    fingerprintAn accurate technique to detect real skin, and so fakes.
    2006 Identification of artificial fingerprints using optical coherence tomography technique Yezeng Cheng
    Kirill V. Larin
    fingerprint(see previous)
    2006 Liveness Detection based on Fine Movements of the Fingertip Surface Martin Drahanský
    Ralf Nötzel
    Wolfgang Funk
    fingerprintAnalysis of fine movements of the fingertip surface, which are induced by volume changes due to the blood flow
    2006 Analysis and selection of features for the fingerprint vitality detection Pietro Coli
    GL.Marciali
    Fabio Roli
    fingerprintmeasures extracted from one or multiple impressions (static measures) or multiple frames (dynamic measures).
    2006 Fingerprint Authentication Using Optical Characteristics in a Finger Emiko Sano
    Takuji Maeda
    T.Nakamura & als.
    fingerprintFingerprint pattern based on optical characteristics of a finger’s interior by scattered transmission light. Differentiate real fingers and fake gummy fingers made from gelatin or other material using optical characteristics.
    2006 Dual-LED imaging for finger liveliness detection and its evaluation with replicas Katsuki Tai
    Etsuji Matsuyama
    M. Kurita, I. Fujieda
    fingerprinttwo LEDs with peak emissions at 530 and 630 nm to cover the spectral ranges where live fingers show characteristic changes
    2006 Jul Dual-LED Imaging System for Secure and Robust Fingerprint Detection I.Fujieda, Katsuki Tai
    Etsuji Matsuyama
    M. Kurita
    fingerprint(see above)
    2006 Recognition of living fingers with a sensor based on scattered-light detection Katsuki Tai
    Masashi Kurita
    Ichiro Fujieda
    fingerprint(see above)
    2006 Robust fake iris detection based on variation of the reflectance ratio between the iris and the sclera Sung Joo Lee
    Kang Ryoung Park
    Jaihie Kim
    irisNew fake iris detection based on the changes in the reflectance ratio between the iris and the sclera.
    2006 Multi-level liveness verification for face-voice biometric authentication Girija Chetty
    Michael Wagner
    face
    voice
    Uncovers the static and dynamic relationship between voice and face information from speaking faces.
    2006 Dec Liveness Detection for Embedded Face Recognition System Hyung-Keun Jee
    Sung-Uk Jung
    Jang-Hee Yoo
    faceAnalysis of eye movements.
    2007
    2007 Vulnerabilities in Biometric Systems: Attacks and Recent Advances in Liveness Detection J.Galbally
    J.Fierrez
    J.Ortega-Garcia
    fingerprint
    iris
    Yet another status about aliveness detection.
    2007 BioLogger - A biometric key logger Matthew Lewis fingerprintNot a paper about aliveness, but about hacking a fingerprint system (man in the middle).
    2007 May Aliveness Detection of Fingerprints using Multiple Static Features H.Choi, R.Kang
    K.Choi, J.Kim
    fingerprintThe static features are comprised of individual pore spacing, residual noise and several first order statistics.
    2007 A New Approach to Fake Finger Detection Based on Skin Elasticity Analysis Jia Jia, Lianhong Cai
    Kaifu Zhang
    Dawei Chen
    fingerprintSkin distorsion on a sequence of images, without special finger movement.
    2007 Fake Finger Detection Based on Time-Series Fingerprint Image Analysis Jia Jia
    Lianhong Cai
    fingerprintFive features are extracted from the image sequence. Two features represent the skin elasticity, and three features represent the physiological process of perspiration.
    2007 Power spectrum-based fingerprint vitality detection Pietro Coli
    GL.Marciali
    Fabio Roli
    fingerprintPoints out the difference between "live" and "fake" images in terms of high frequency information loss.
    2007 Sep A New Method for Fingerprint Antispoofing using Pulse Oximetry P. Venkata Reddy
    A.Kumar, SMK.Rahman
    Tanvir S. Mundra
    fingerprintPulse oximetry and involves the known source of light originating from a probe at two wavelengths.
    2007 Vitality Detection from Fingerprint Images: A Critical Survey Pietro Coli
    Gian Luca Marcialis
    Fabio Roli
    fingerprintPresents a critical review of current approaches to fingerprint vitality detection in order to analyze the state–of–the art and the related open issues
    2007 Liveness Detection of Fingerprint Based on Band-Selective Fourier Spectrum Changlong Jin
    Hakil Kim
    Stephen Elliott
    fingerprintTypically, live fingerprints show stronger Fourier spectrum in the ring patterns than the fake.
    2007 Fingerprint Synthesis and Spoof Detection Annalisa Franco
    Davide Maltoni
    fingerprintA fake fingerprint detection method based on analysis of the finger odor
    2007 Fingerprint Biometric Liveness (LiveCheck™) Wetstone fingerprintLiveCheck™ is a software solution that uses intelligent system technology to distinguish visually between live and real prints.
    2007 Fake Finger Detection Based on Thin-Plate Spline Distortion Model Yangyang Zhang
    Jie Tian, Xinjian Chen
    Xin Yang, Peng Shi
    fingerprintThe thin-plate spline (TPS) model is used to globally describe the finger distortion.
    2007 A multispectral whole-hand biometric authentication system R.Rowe, U.Uludag
    Meltem Demirkus
    S.Parthasaradhi
    Anil K Jain
    fingerprint
    hand
    multispectral technology that is able to provide hand shape, fingerprints and pahmprint modalities of a user's hand by a single user interaction with the sensor.
    2007 Multi-Factor Authentication Using Spectral Biometrics Davar Pishva fingerprint
    iris
    feasibility of enhancing existing biometrics technology with a spectroscopic method in order to prevent spoofing
    2007 Spoof Detection Schemes Kristin Adair Nixon
    Valerio Aimale
    Robert K. Rowe
    fingerprint
    iris
    face
    History, summary of attacks, list of spoof sensors... very interesting, although the conclusion for the Lumidigm sensor is too good. You need only one type of working fake to kill your system.
    2007 In Vivo Two- and Three-Dimensional Imaging of Artificial and Real Fingerprints With Optical Coherence Tomography Yezeng Cheng
    Kirill V. Larin
    fingerprintoptical coherence tomography-based method for depth-resolved 2-D and 3-D imaging
    2007 Utilizing Characteristic Electrical Properties of the Epidermal Skin Layers to Detect Fake Fingers in Biometric Fingerprint Systems—A Pilot Study O.G.Martinsen
    S.Clausen
    J.B.Nysaether
    Sverre Grimnes
    fingerprint based on measurement of electrical characteristics of different layers of the skin
    2007 Fake Finger Detection by Finger Color Change Analysis Wei-Yun Yau
    H.T. Tran, E.K. Teoh
    Jian-Gang Wang
    fingerprintThe force exhibited when the finger presses the hard surface changes the blood perfusion which resulted in a whiter color appearance
    2007 Dec Multifeature-based fake iris detection method S.J.Lee, K.R.Park
    Y.J.Lee, K.Bae
    Jaihie Kim
    irisUses the reflectance ratios of the iris to the sclera (RRIS) at 750 and 850 nm, and the thickness of the corneoscleral limbus.
    2007 Making iris recognition more reliable and spoof resistant Adam Czajka
    Przemek Strzelczyk
    Andrzej Pacut
    iristhree methods of eye-aliveness detection based on frequency analysis (FA), controlled light reflection (CLR), and pupil dynamics(PD) (see 2004 article).
    2007 A multimodal hand-based verification system with an aliveness-detection module N.Pavesic, T.Savic
    S.Ribaric, I.Fratric
    palmprint
    hand
    palmprint, four digitprints and four fingerprints. The features are obtained using the Karhunen-Loève transform based approach, and information fusion at the matching-score level was applied.
    2007 Multimodal Authentication Based on Hand Features Extracted from Multispectral Images N.Pavesic, T.Savic
    S.Ribaric, I.Fratric
    handPresentation related to the previous article.
    2007 Synergy of Lip-Motion and Acoustic Features in Biometric Speech and Speaker Recognition M-I. Faraj
    Josef Bigun
    face
    voice
    A liveness verification barrier based on a person’s lip movement is added to the system to guard against advanced spoofing attempts such as replayed videos.
    2007 Non-intrusive liveness detection by face images K.Kollreider
    H.Fronthaler
    J.Bigun
    faceAnalyzing the trajectories of certain parts of a live face reveals valuable information to discriminate it against a spoofed one.
    2007 Eyeblink-based Anti-Spoofing in Face Recognition from a Generic Webcamera Gang Pan
    Lin Sun
    Zhaohui Wu
    Shihong Lao
    faceWe formulate blink detection as inference in an undirected conditional graphical framework, and are able to learn a compact and efficient observation and transition potentials from data.
    2007 "Aliveness Detection Using Coupled Hidden Markov Models" Enrique A. Rúa
    Hervé Bredin
    Carmen G. Mateo
    Gérard Chollet,
    lips, voiceCheck the aliveness by measuring the synchrony between speech and lip movement in an audio-visual framework.
    2008
    2008 Vitality detection in personal authentication systems using fingerprints (Ph.D thesis) Pietro Coli fingerprint (mostly)A catalogue of spoofing techniques, followed by an aliveness detection tentative by software, analyzing fingerprint images (morphologic method).
    2008 A New Antispoofing Approach for Biometric Devices P. Venkata Reddy
    A.Kumar, SMK.Rahman
    Tanvir S. Mundra
    fingerprintSame as the 2007 article.
    2008 Biometric System Laboratory : Fake Finger Detection Unibo fingerprintThis article is about fake finger detection using skin distorsion & odor (2 videos). See also Biosec D1.10.
    2008 Fingerprint silicon replicas: static and dynamic features for vitality detection using an optical capture device Pietro Coli
    G.L.Marcialis
    Fabio Roli
    fingerprintReported results show the relative merits of static and dynamic features and the performance improvement.
    2008 Texture and Wavelet-Based Spoof Fingerprint Detection for Fingerprint Biometric Systems S.B.Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprintBased on structural, orientation, roughness, smoothness and regularity differences of diverse regions in a fingerprint image. Uses local binary pattern (LBP) histograms.
    2008 Ridgelet-based fake fingerprint detection S.B.Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprintRidgelet transform allows representing singularities along lines in a more efficient way than the wavelets.
    2008 Fingerprint Liveness Detection Using Curvelet Energy and Co-Occurrence Signatures S.B.Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprint(idem)
    2008 Co-occurrence probabilities and wavelet-based spoof fingerprint detection S.B.Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprint(likely the same thing than previous article).
    2008 Local binary pattern and wavelet-based spoof fingerprint detection S.B.Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprint(idem)
    2008 Wavelet energy signature and GLCM features-based fingerprint anti-spoofing S.B.Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprint(again!)
    2008 Gabor Filter-Based Fingerprint Anti-spoofing S.B.Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprint(rhaaahhh!)
    2008 Curvelet-based fingerprint anti-spoofing Shankar B. Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprintRidges oriented in different directions in a fingerprint image are curved; hence curvelets are very significant to characterize fingerprint texture
    2008 Integrating a wavelet based perspiration liveness check with fingerprint recognition A.Abhyankar
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintA wavelet based approach to detect liveness, integrated with the fingerprint matcher. Liveness is determined from perspiration changes along the fingerprint ridges. Reduces EER to 0.03%.
    2008 Multispectral Fingerprint Image Acquisition Robert Rowe
    Kristin Nixon
    Paul Butler
    fingerprintWhite paper about multispectral imaging, chapter spoof detection.
    2008 Liveness Detection for Biometric Systems Based on Papillary Lines Martin Drahansky
    Dana Lodrova
    fingerprintDetect the movements of papillary lines caused by heartbeat within the video stream.
    2008 Experiments with Skin Resistance and Temperature for Liveness Detection Martin Drahansky fingerprintTwo experiments made with skin resistance and temperature.
    2008 Methods of Liveness Testing By Fingers Dana Lodrova
    Martin Drahansky
    fingerprintOur two patented methods based on recognition of pulse (heart activity) are introduced more in detail.
    2008 May Novel methods for fingerprint image analysis detect fake fingers Bozhao Tan
    Aaron Lewicke
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintValley noise detection error: software-based liveness detection algorithms using the differences between spoof and real finger images.
    2008 May New approach for liveness detection in fingerprint scanners based on valley noise analysis Bozhao Tan
    Aaron Lewicke
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintValley noise detection error: software-based liveness detection algorithms using the differences between spoof and real finger images.
    2008 May Spectroscopically Enhanced Method and System for Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication Davar Pishva fingerprint
    iris
    A person's unique ‘spectral signatures’ or ‘spectral factors’ are recorded
    2008 Fake finger detection using an electrotactile display system Wei-Yun Yau
    Hai-Linh Tran
    Eam-Khwang Teoh
    fingerprintTactile perception capability is absent in the dead or a totally fake finger
    2008 Optical coherence tomography used for security and fingerprint-sensing applications S. Chang, Y.Cheng
    K.V.Larin, Y.Mao
    S.Sherif, C.Flueraru
    fingerprinta typical depth-resolution of an OCT system is of micrometre scale, an information carrier having a volume of 20x20x2 mm3
    2008 A Fingerprint Sensor with Impedance Sensing for Fraud Detection T.Shimamura
    Shimoyama, Sakata
    Shigematsu, Nakanishi
    fingerprintA fingerprint sensor that integrates fraud detection and fingerprint sensing to prevent spoofing with a fake (artificial) finger is presented
    2008 Direct attacks using fake images in iris verification Virginia Ruiz-Albacete & als irisPrinted iris.
    2008 Eye Aliveness Detection
    (Nask review pages 29-35)
    Adam Czajka
    Andrzej Pacut
    iris(See also their regular papers).
    2008 Counterfeit Iris Detection Based on Texture Analysis Zhuoshi Wei
    Xianchao Qiu
    Zhenan Sun, Tieniu Tan
    irisIris-Texton is able to detect fakes done with contact lens.
    2008 A Fake Iris Detection Method Based on FFT and Quality Assessment Xiaofu He
    Yue Lu
    Pengfei Shi
    irismethod based on the analysis of 2-D Fourier spectra together with iris image quality assessment
    2008 Verifying Liveness by Multiple Experts in Face Biometrics K.Kollreider
    H.Fronthaler
    J.Bigun
    faceIn this paper we are suggesting a holistic liveness detection paradigm that collaborates with standard techniques in 2D face biometrics.
    2008 Evidence for "liveness" in face biometrics (not available) K.Kollreider faceKollreider thesis.
    2008 Dec Liveness Detection for Face Recognition Gang Pan
    Zhaohui Wu
    Lin Sun
    faceEye blink
    2008 Dec Your face is NOT your password Face Authentication ByPassing Lenovo – Asus – Toshiba Nguyen Minh Duc
    Bui Quang Minh
    faceFake face bruteforce: face images are regenerated with different light expositions.
    2008 A multimodal hand vein, hand geometry, and fingerprint prototype design for high security biometrics M. K. Shahin
    A. M. Badawi
    M. E. Rasmy
    vein
    hand
    fingerprint
    A combination of several biometrics is better against spoofing: very hard to spoof attacks on the sensory level and the NIR HV and NIR HG thermal images are good signals for liveness detection.
    2009
    2009 Jul Encyclopedia of biometrics:
  • Fingerprint Fake Detection
  • Fingerprint Hashing
  • Liveness: Fingerprint
  • JF.Mainguet
    S.Schuckers
    generalIntroduction to aliveness detection and biometrics + cryptographics. Almost the final version. Interesting to get the full picture of biometric security problems.
    2009 Evaluation Methodology For Fake Samples Detection In Biometrics Fernandez-Saavedra
    Raul Sanchez-Reillo
    Raul Alonso-Moreno
    generala methodology based on Common Criteria is given to evaluate, in an independent way, whether biometric capture devices implement methods for fake samples detection, and till which extent such methods are effective
    2009 Robustness of multimodal biometric fusion methods against spoof attacks Ricardo N. Rodrigues
    Lee Luan Ling
    Venu Govindaraju
    generalAddress the security of multimodal biometric systems when one of the modes is successfully spoofed. Two novel fusion schemes, fuzzy, fusion with intrinsic security.
    2009 Fingerprints Image Spoof Detection and Classification Tatiana Barsky fingerprintBased on image features extracted from 2D fingerprints images, we present several novel algorithms that classify fingerprints images as real or fake, and demonstrate their performance on a fingerprints database.
    2009 Fake Fingers in Fingerprint Recognition: Glycerin Supersedes Gelatin Claude Barral
    Assia Tria
    fingerprintGlycerin fakes look better than gelatin fake fingers.
    2009 Fingerprint liveness detection competition 2009 LivDet 2009 fingerprintSoftware competition based on images acquired with fakes.
    2009 First International Fingerprint Liveness Detection Competition—LivDet 2009
    (presentation slides)
    LivDet 2009 fingerprintResults of the software competition based on images acquired with fakes.
    2009 Fake-fingerprint detection using multiple static features H.Choi, R.Kang
    K.Choi & als
    fingerprintPower spectrum, histogram, directional contrast, ridge thickness, and ridge signal as representative static features. Same title as the 2007 paper!
    2009 A Novel Region Based Liveness Detection Approach for Fingerprint Scanners Brian DeCann
    Bozhao Tan
    S.Schuckers
    fingerprintThe method quantifies perspiration via region labeling methods, a simple computer vision technique.
    2009 Spoofing Protection for Fingerprint Scanner by Fusing Ridge Signal and Valley Noise Bozhao Tan
    Stephanie Schuckers
    fingerprintridge signal and valley noise analysis, to quantify perspiration patterns along ridges in live subjects and noise patterns along valleys in spoofs
    2009 Fingerprint spoof detection using blood-flow analysis Ajay Kumar fingerprintOxymetry, see also the 2007 article
    2009 Fingerprint Liveness Detection Based on Quality Measures Javier Galbally
    F.Alonso-Fernandez
    Fierrez, Ortega-Garcia
    fingerprintA new fingerprint parameterization for liveness detection based on quality measures is presented. Tested on LivDET.
    2009 Sep Fingerprint Spoof Detection Using Fractional Fourier Transform You-suk Bae fingerprintFiltering the Fourier spectrum. Slide presentation at the Asian Biometric Consortium.
    2009 New liveness detection method based on causation of optical changes Dana Lodrova
    Martin Drahansky
    fingerprintcausation of optical changes by pressing the finger against some material, whereas we detect changes in color and elasticity of the papillary lines
    2009 Virdi fake finger presentation (Virdi 4000) fingerprintMaking fakes by Virdi.
    2009 A novel contactless aliveness-testing (CAT) fingerprint sensor Lirong Wang
    RH Abd El-Maksoud
    Jose Sasian, W.Kuhn
    K.Gee, V.Valencia
    fingerprintinnovative prototype optical, contactless, compact, fingerprint sensor that quickly produces high-quality, high-contrast interoperable fingerprint images
    2009 Jun Wavelet-based multiresolution analysis of ridges for fingerprint liveness detection Shankar B. Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprint(one more article)
    2009 Jul Feature fusion using Gabor filters and co-occurrence probabilities for fingerprint antispoofing Shankar B. Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprint
    2009 Image classification of artificial fingerprints using Gabor wavelet filters, self-organising maps and Hermite/Laguerre neural networks Leif E. Peterson
    Kirill V. Larin
    fingerprintGabor wavelet filters for image feature extraction, self-organising maps (SOM), and forward (FNN), Hermite (HNN) and Laguerre (LNN) neural networks to classify real and artificial fingerprint images from OCT
    2009 A New Fake Iris Detection Method Xiaofu He
    Yue Lu
    Pengfei Shi
    irisPropose a new fake iris detection method based on wavelet packet transform.
    2009 Efficient Iris Spoof Detection via Boosted Local Binary Patterns Zhaofeng He
    Zhenan Sun, Tieniu Tan
    Zhuoshi Wei
    irisLocal binary patterns (LBP) adopted for texture representation of each sub-region of normalized iris.
    2009 Audio-Visual Multimodal Fusion for Biometric Person Authentication and Liveness Verification Girija Chetty
    Michael Wagner
    face
    voice
    multimodal fusion framework based on novel face-voice fusion techniques
    2009 Jul Biometric person authentication with liveness detection based on audio-visual fusion Girija Chetty
    Michael Wagner
    face
    voice
    (same)
    2009 Oct Detecting Liveness in Multimodal Biometric Security Systems Girija Chetty face
    voice
    face-voice fusion
    2009 Audio-Visual Speech Asynchrony Detection using Co-Inertia Analysis and Coupled Hidden Markov Models E.A Rua, H.Bredin
    C.Mateo,G.Chollet
    D.Gonzalez, J.Chetty
    Michael Wagner
    face
    voice
    The liveness check is performed by measuring the degree of synchrony between the lips and the voice
    2009 Masked fake face detection using radiance measurements Youngshin Kim
    Jaekeun Na
    S.Yoon, J.Yi
    faceThe feature vector used consists of radiance measurements of the forehead region under 850 and 685nm illuminations
    2010
    2010 Multimodal Fusion Vulnerability to Non-Zero Effort (Spoof) Imposters P. A. Johnson
    B. Tan
    S. Schuckers
    generalThis paper looks at the cases where some but not all modalities are spoofed. The contribution is to outline a method for assessment of multimodal systems and underlying fusion algorithms
    2010 Combining Dynamic Data With Physical Biometric Verification To Counteract Spoofing Nobuyuki Nishiuchi generala new method that uses dynamic data which are difficult to spoof. Finger geometry, finger veins, irises, and the contour of the eyelid
    2010 Biometrics & Security: Combining Fingerprints, Smart Cards and Cryptography Claude Barral fingerprintPhD thesis, chapter 9 aliveness detection systems.
    2010 Analysis of Fingerprint Pores for Vitality Detection Gian Luca Marcialis
    Fabio Roli
    Alessandra Tidu
    fingerprintwe propose to analyse pores location for characterizing the “liveness” of fingerprints
    2010 Automatic detection of active sweat pores of fingerprint using highpass and correlation filtering N. Manivanan
    S. Memon
    W. Balachandran
    fingerprintThe combined technique includes highpass filtering followed by correlation
    2010 Liveness and Spoofing in Fingerprint Identification: Issues and Challenges Mojtaba Sepasian
    Cristinel Mares
    W.Balachandran
    fingerprintvarious fingerprint liveness detection methods, which are categorized as voluntary and involuntary, are explored
    2010 Apr Vitality Detection in Fingerprint Identification Mojtaba Sepasian
    Cristinel Mares
    W.Balachandran
    fingerprint(similar as previous paper)
    2010 Modular Decomposition of Fingerprint Time Series Captures for the Liveness Check Aditya Abhyankar
    Stephanie Schuckers
    fingerprintThe physiological phenomenon of perspiration, observed in time-series fingerprint images of live people.
    2010 Oct New Experiments with Optical Liveness Testing Methods Martin Drahansky
    Dana Hejtmankova
    fingerprintDetection of changes of distance between neighbor papillary lines caused by pulse, detection of volumetric changes by the use of laser distance sensor, causation of optical changes
    2010 On security evaluation of fingerprint recognition systems Olaf Henniger
    Dirk Scheuermann
    Thomas Kniess
    fingerprintMethodology for evaluating the security of fingerprint recognition systems. For keeping track of the multitude of potential vulnerabilities an attack tree is used.
    2010 Dec The Effect of Environmental Conditions and Novel Spoofing Methods on Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing Algorithms Bozhao Tan
    Aaron Lewicke
    David Yambay
    Stephanie Schuckers
    fingerprintMore spoofing materials of latex rubber, latex caulk, and latex paint. Temperature, humidity, and novel spoof materials degrades performance. Can be restored when these factors are included in the training of the anti-spoofing model.
    2010 Sep An anti-spoofing technique using multiple textural features in fingerprint scanners Emanuela Marasco
    Carlo Sansone
    fingerprintnovel software-based solution for liveness detection based on static features coming out from the visual texture of the image
    2010 Jan Fake fingerprint detection based on image analysis Sang-il Jin, You-suk Bae
    Hyun-ju Maeng
    Hyun-suk Lee
    fingerprinthistogram distance and Fourier spectrum distance
    2010 Internal Fingerprint Identification With Optical Coherence Tomography Anke Bossen
    Roland Lehmann
    Christoph Meier
    fingerprintInternal fingerprint with wax on the finger (fake)
    2010 Sep Evaluation of Biometric Spoofing in a Multimodal System (presentation slides) Ricardo Rodrigues
    Niranjan Kamat
    Venu Govindaraju
    face
    fingerprint
    We investigate a multimodal system composed of face and fingerprint under different spoof attack scenarios.
    2010 An evaluation of direct attacks using fake fingers generated from ISO templates Javier Galbally, Cappelli
    Lumini, Gonzalez-de-R.
    Maltoni, Fierreza, Ortega-Garcia, Maio
    fingerprintthe study disproves the popular belief of minutiae templates non-reversibility
    2010 Risk of Masquerade Arising from the Storage of Biometrics Christopher James Hill fingerprintReconstruction from template
    2010 Face Liveness Detection from A Single Image with Sparse Low Rank Bilinear Discriminative Model Xiaoyang Tan
    Yi Li, Jun Liu
    Lin Jiang
    faceUsing the Lambertian model, we propose two strategies to extract the essential information about different surface properties of a live human face or a photograph, in terms of latent samples.
    2010 Liveness iris detection method based on the eye's optical features Yuqing He, Yushi Hou
    Yingjiao Li
    Yueming Wang
    irisChange of iris texture and light spot under different waveband and position of the infrared illumination, calculating the difference of the reflection property in different iris parts
    2010 Fake iris detection based on 3D structure of iris pattern Eui Chul Lee
    Kang Ryoung Park
    irisby using 4 near infra-red illuminators, 3D structure of iris pattern could be shown distinctively
    2010 Contact Lens Detection Based on Weighted LBP Hui Zhang
    Zhenan Sun
    Tieniu Tan
    iris1. a simplified SIFT descriptor is extracted at each pixel of the image. 2. the SIFT descriptor is used to rank the LBP encoding sequence
    2010 Dynamic Iris Localisation: A Novel Approach suitable for Fake Iris Detection Rajesh Bodade
    Dr Sanjay Talbar
    irisAccurate iris segmentation using two images captured at two different intensities.
    2011
    2011 Increase the security of multibiometric systems by incorporating a spoofing detection algorithm in the fusion mechanism Emanuela Marasco
    Peter Johnson
    Carlo Sansone
    Stephanie Schuckers
    generalIncorporating a liveness detection algorithm in the fusion scheme, the multimodal system results robust in presence of spoof attacks involving only a subset of the fused modalities.
    2011 Robustness Evaluation of Biometric Systems under Spoof Attacks Zahid Akhtar
    Giorgio Fumera
    Gian Luca Marcialis
    Fabio Roli
    generalmethod based on simulating the fake score distributions of individual matchers, to evaluate the relative robustness of different score fusion rules
    2011 Robustness of Serial and Parallel Biometric Fusion against Spoof Attacks Zahid Akhtar
    Nasir Alfarid
    generalcompare the performance of the multimodal systems with each mode under different spoof attack scenarios
    2011 Spoof Attacks on Multimodal Biometric Systems Zahid Akhtar
    Sandeep Kale
    Nasir Alfarid
    generalmultimodal systems can be cracked by spoofing only one trait
    2011 Liveness Detection Of Biometric Traits Mohmad Kashif Qureshi general(paper without interest)
    2011 Possibility of spoof attack against robustness of multibiometric authentication systems Mahdi Hariri
    Shahriar B. Shokouhi
    generalnovel practical method for simulation of possibilities of spoof attacks. Sum, product, and Bayes fusion rules are applied for score level combination
    2011 A Penetration Testers Guide to Finger Print Authentication
    blog part 1 blog part 2 (local copy)
    FB1H2S aka
    Rahul Sasi
    fingerprintguide explaining the necessity of including Biometric-Devices in the scope of a network audit and the procedures that could be used for Security auditing one such system
    2011 May Evaluation of direct attacks to fingerprint verification systems J.Galbally, J.Fierrez
    F.Alonso-Fernandez
    M.Martinez-Diaz
    fingerprintTwo different systems, one minutiae-based and one ridge feature-based, are evaluated on a database of real and fake fingerprints
    2011 Fingerprint Spoof Detection Using Near Infrared Optical Analysis Shoude Chang
    Kirill Larin, Youxin Mao
    Flueraru, Almuhtadi
    fingerprintTwo methods are presented: optical coherence tomography (OCT) and spectral analysis.
    2011 2011_Anti-Spoof Reliable Biometry of Fingerprints Using En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography_Nasiri.pdf (1K) Anti-Spoof Reliable Biometry of Fingerprints Using En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography M.R. Nasiri-Avanaki
    Meadway, Bradu, Khoshki, Hojjatoleslami
    fingerprintWe prove that OCT can serve secure control of genuine fingerprints as it can detect if extra layers are placed above the finger.
    2011 Implementation and Applications of a Fingerprint Encoding System I-Fu Lin
    Tzong-An Su
    fingerprintSequential fingerprint verification to enhance the resistance of fake fingerprint attacks. No special aliveness detection system, just a sequence.
    2011 Fingerprint Liveness Detection Competition 2011 LivDet2011
    Yambay,Ghiani,Denti
    Marcialis,Roli,Schuckers
    fingerprint
    2011 Liveness Detection in Biometrics Martin Drahansky fingerprintgeneral paper on fake finger detection, with the Drahansky's solution
    2011 Liveness Detection In Fingerprint Recognition Technique Using First Order Texture Features Manju Kulkarni
    Harishchanddra Patil
    fingerprintliveness detection technique by means of first order texture features (histogram data)
    2011 Active pore detection for liveness in fingerprint identification system S. Memon
    N. Manivanan
    W. Balachandran
    fingerprint(idem 2010)
    2011 Aug Security Issues in Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems S. Memon
    N. Manivanan
    A.Noor, C.Tigli
    fingerprintThis paper discusses security issues with AFIS at various system levels
    2011 Risk evaluation for spoofing against a sensor supplied with liveness detection Marcela Espinoza
    Christophe Champod
    fingerprintcurrent multispectral sensors can be deceived by the use of fake fingerprints
    2011 Using the Number of Pores on Fingerprint Images to Detect Spoofing Attacks Marcela Espinoza
    Christophe Champod
    fingerprintReproduction of pores is possible. Distribution of pores between fake and genuine cannot be discriminated. Difference in pore quantities (genuine or fake) can be used as a discriminating factor.
    2011 Vulnerabilities of fingerprint reader to fake fingerprints attacks Marcela Espinoza
    Christophe Champod
    P.Margot
    fingerprintGenuine fingerprints produced scores higher than fake fingers
    2011 Dynamic liveness and forgeries detection of the finger surface on the basis of spectroscopy in the 400–1650 nm region Clarissa Hengfossa
    A.Kulckea, G.Mulla
    C.Edlerb, K.Püschelb
    Eilin Jopp
    fingerprintreflection and transmission spectra in the wavelength region from 400 to 1650 nm were recorded from living volunteers and corpses
    2011 Use of Spectral Biometrics for Aliveness Detection Davar Pishva fingerprint
    iris
    proposes the implementation of verification of 'spectral signatures' or 'spectral factors' that are unique to human beings
    2011 Vitality Detection from Biometrics: State-of-the-Art Yogendra Narain Singh
    Sanjay Kumar Singh
    fingerprint
    face, iris
    This paper proposes a classification of vitality detection techniques for fingerprint, face and iris biometrics
    2011 Fingerprint Liveness Detection Based on Multiple Image Quality Features Changlong Jin
    Shengzhe Li
    Hakil Kim, Ensoo Park
    fingerprintThree effective fake/live quality measures, spectral band energy, middle ridge line and middle valley line, are extracted and fused and tested on a fake/live dataset using SVM and QDA classifiers
    2011 Apr Fake Iris Detection: A Holistic Approach Rajesh Bodade
    Sanjay Talbar
    irisIn this paper, all possible types of fake iris has been identified + robust iris segmentation algorithm having inherent capability of fake iris detection
    2011 A new iris liveness detection method against contact lens spoofing Niladri B. Puhan
    N. Sudha
    A. Suhas Hegde
    irisiris texture dissimilarity between two iris regions due to pupillary light reflex
    2011 Iris Liveness Detection for Semi-transparent Contact Lens Spoofing Niladri B. Puhan
    N. Sudha
    A. Suhas Hegde
    iris(likely the same as previous)
    2011 How to Generate Spoofed Irises From an Iris Code Template Shreyas Venugopalan
    Marios Savvides
    irismethods to generate alternate iris textures for a given person to bypass a system based on iris bit code
    2011 Trusted Biometrics under Spoofing Attacks: D3.2: Evaluation of baseline non-ICAO biometric systems Tabula Rasa voice, gait
    vein, fp
    EEG,ECG
    Establish the baseline scores to which all later experimental results with spoofing and countermeasures will potentially be compared.
    2011 Face Spoofing Detection From Single Images Using Micro-Texture Analysis Jukka Maatta
    Abdenour Hadid
    Matti Pietikainen
    faceThe proposed approach analyzes the texture of the facial images using multi-scale local binary patterns
    2011 Monocular camera-based face liveness detection by combining eyeblink and scene context Gang Pan
    Lin Sun, Zhaohui Wu
    Yueming Wang
    faceeyeblink + scene
    2011 Counter-Measures to Photo Attacks in Face Recognition: a public database and a baseline André Anjos
    Sébastien Marcel
    faceintroduce the publicly available PRINT-ATTACK database and exemplify how to use its companion protocol
    2012
    2012 Sep Fake Detection - Mission Impossible? Manfred Bromba general(presentation)
    2012 Robustness of Multi Biometric Authentication Systems against Spoofing Mahdi Hariri
    Shahriar B. Shokouhi
    generalWe empirically examine the robustness of five fixed rules combining similarity scores of face and fingerprint traits in a bimodal system.
    2012 Security evaluation of biometric authentication systems under real spoofing attacks B.Biggio, Z.Akhtar
    G.Fumera, G.L.Marcialis
    F.Roli
    generalOur results confirm that multimodal systems are vulnerable to attacks against a single biometric trait. They show that the `worst-case` scenario can be too pessimistic.
    2012 Sept Evaluation of serial and parallel multibiometric systems under spoofing attacks Z.Akhtar
    G.Fumera, GL.Marcialis
    F.Roli
    general(see previous paper)
    2012 Liveness-based fusion approaches in multibiometrics Luca Marfella
    Emanuela Marasco
    Carlo Sansone
    generaldevise proper approaches to integrate liveness detection into fusion at score or decision level
    2012 Analysis of user-specific score characteristics for spoof biometric attacks Ajita Rattani
    Norman Poh
    Arun Ross
    generalbiometric users contribute disproportionately to the FRR (false reject rate) and FAR (false accept rate) of the system. Known as the Doddington zoo effect.
    2012 Combining Match Scores with Liveness Values in a Fingerprint Verification System Emanuela Marasco
    Yaohui Ding
    Arun Ross
    fingerprintFour different configurations for combining biometric match scores with liveness measure values (fingerprints)
    2012 Combining perspiration- and morphology-based static features for fingerprint liveness detection Emanuela Marasco
    Carlo Sansone
    fingerprintcombine a set of the most robust morphological and perspiration-based measures
    2012 Fingerprint Liveness Detection by Local Phase Quantization Luca Ghiani
    Gian Luca Marcialis
    Fabio Roli
    fingerprintEe present a novel features set, based on the local phase quantization.
    2012 Fingerprint Liveness Detection Based on Fake Finger Characteristics Gian Luca Marcialis
    Pietro Coli
    Fabio Roli
    fingerprintExploiting characteristics noticed in the reproduction of fake fingers, that they named fake-based features
    2012 Jan Fingerprint Sensors: Liveness Detection Issue and Hardware based Solutions Shahzad Memon
    M.Nadarajah, A.Noor
    Balachadran & als
    fingerprint(survey, sensors & transducers)
    2012 Dec A high performance fingerprint liveness detection method based on quality related features Javier Galbally
    F.Alonso-Fernandez
    Julian Fierrez
    Javier Ortega-Garcia
    fingerprintjust one image from a finger to decide whether it is real or fake
    2012 Spoof attack detection in fingerprint biometric system using histogram features Ankita Chaudhari
    P.J. Deore
    fingerprintFirst order statistical properties of fingerprints: energy, entropy, median, variance, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variations
    2012 Automation of Fingerprint Recognition Using OCT Fingerprint Images Nasibe Akbari
    Ali Sadr
    fingerprintAlgorithm for automation fingerprint recognition on the OCT fingerprint images. With and without fake.
    2012 Biometric Liveness Detection: Framework and Metrics P.Johnson & als fingerprint(slide presentation)
    2012 Novel Active Sweat Pores Based Liveness Detection Techniques for Fingerprint Biometrics Shahzad Ahmed Memon fingerprintHigh Pass Correlation Filtering Algorithm to detect pore + Measuring the ionic activities of sweat fluid.
    2012 Vulnerabilities and Performance Analysis over Fingerprint Biometric Authentication Network Edward Guillen
    Lina Alfonso
    K.Martinez, M.Mejia
    fingerprint(not about vitality)
    2012 Wavelet Based Fingerprint Liveness Detection B.G. Warwante
    S.A. Maske
    fingerprintFingerprint liveness detection based on the wavelet analysis of the finger tip surface texture
    2012 Fooling a Liveness-Detecting Capacitive Fingerprint Scanner Edwin Bowden-Peters
    Raphael C.-W. Phan
    John N. Whitley
    David J. Parish
    fingerprintShow that a celebrated capacitive fingerprint scanner with liveness detection claims, can be fooled by fake fingers produced by amateurs from cheap commercially available materials
    2012 A modular architecture based on image quality for fingerprint spoof detection George Cavalcanti
    L.Pereira, H.Pinheiro
    J.Silva A.Silva T.Pina
    D.Carvalho, T.Ren
    fingerprintCombines classifiers working independently into two distinct image quality groups
    2012 A fingerprint spoof detection based on MLP and SVM L.Pereira, H.Pinheiro
    J.Silva A.Silva T.Pina
    George Cavalcanti
    T.Ren, P.Oliveira
    fingerprintTwo scenarios: (i) when an impostor can perform consecutive attempts to be considered authentic; and, (ii) when the system deals with fingerprints from elderly people
    2012 Fingerprint Sensors: Liveness Detection Issue and Hardware based Solutions S.Memon, Manivannan
    A.Noor, W.Balachadran
    Nikolaos V. Boulgouris
    fingerprintreview the existing fingerprint sensing technologies in terms of liveness detection
    2012 Impedance-Sensing Circuit Techniques for Integration of a Fraud Detection Function Into a Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor Toshishige Shimamura
    Nobuhiro Shimoyama
    T.Sakata, S.Shigematsu, M.Nakanishi
    fingerprintimpedance-sensing circuit integrated into a capacitive fingerprint sensor to prevent spoofing with a fake finger. A test chip was fabricated using 0.5-µm CMOS/sensor processes (see also the 2008 paper).
    2012 Experimental Results on Fingerprint Liveness Detection Luca Ghiani
    Paolo Denti
    Gian Luca Marcialis
    fingerprintExperimental results on several state-of-the-art fingerprint liveness detection algorithms on the datasets available at LivDet 2011
    2012 Large Scale Experiments on Fingerprint Liveness Detection Gian Luca Marcialis
    L.Ghiani, K.Vetter
    D.Morgeneier, F.Roli
    fingerprintDecrease of performance when varying the pressure and the environmental illumination as well as the size of the region of interest (ROI)
    2012 Iris Liveness Detection Based on Quality Related Features Javier Galbally
    Jaime Ortiz-Lopez
    Julian Fierrez
    Javier Ortega-Garcia
    irisA new liveness detection scheme for iris based on quality related measures is presented.
    2012 Liveness Detection Using Eye Blink A case Study P.Bhardwaj
    Swapan Debbarma
    Suman Deb
    N.Debbarma, J.Pal
    face
    iris
    Eye blink as an evidence of liveness to exclude using some fakes, mainly 2D photographs
    2012 Face Liveness Detection Based on Texture and Frequency Analyses Gahyun Kim
    Sungmin Eum
    Jae Kyu Suhr
    Dong Ik Kim & als
    faceA single image-based face liveness detection method for discriminating 2-D paper masks from the live faces
    2012 A Face Antispoofing Database with Diverse Attacks Zhiwei Zhang
    Junjie Yan
    S.Liu, Z.Lei, D.Yi
    Stan Z. Li
    faceIn this paper we release a face anti-spoofing database which covers a diverse range of potential attack variations
    2012 Face Liveness Detection by Exploring Multiple Scenic Clues Junjie Yan
    Zhiwei Zhang
    Z.Lei, D.Yi
    Stan Z. Li
    facethree scenic clues: non-rigid motion, face-background consistency and imaging banding effect, to conduct accurate and efficient face liveness detection
    2012 Liveness Detection Using Thermal Image – A Case Study Suman Deb
    Saptarshi Chakraborty
    Anupam Jamatia
    face(article creux, vide)
    2012 Video-Based Face Spoofing Detection through Visual Rhythm Analysis Allan da Silva Pinto
    Helio Pedrini
    William R. Schwartz
    Anderson Rocha
    faceFourier spectrum followed by the computation of the visual rhythm and extraction of the graylevel co-occurrence matrices, used as feature descriptors for video-based face spoofing.
    2012 Sep Vitality Detection in Face Images using Second Order Gradient Aruni Singh
    Shrikant Tiwari
    Sanjay K. Singh
    face200 dummy face images and 200 real face images are evaluated to detect the vitality using second order gradient method and observed 65-89.5 % classification accuracy
    2012 Sep Liveness Detection Using Gaze Collinearity Asad Ali
    Farzin Deravi
    Sanaul Hoque
    faceFollow a visual animation of a moving object on a display screen while his/her gaze is measured
    2012 Mar Discriminant Analysis with Gabor Phase for Robust Face Recognition Jianfei Zhu
    Dong Cao, Sifei Liu
    Zhen Lei, Stan Z. Li
    facepropose a Gabor phase difference representation for occlusion robust face recognition
    2012 LBP TOP based countermeasure against face spoofing attacks Tiago de Freitas Pereira
    Andre Anjos
    JM.De Martino, S.Marcel
    facebased on the LBP TOP operator combining both space and time information into a single multiresolution texture descriptor
    2012 Moving Face Spoofing Detection via 3D Projective Invariants Maria De Marsico
    M.Nappi, D.Riccio
    Jean-Luc Dugelay
    faceStarting from a set of automatically located facial points, we exploit geometric invariants for detecting replay attacks
    2012 Spoofing 2D Face Recognition Systems with 3D Masks Nesli Erdogmus
    Sébastien Marcel
    faceComplicate the spoofing problem further by introducing the 3rd dimension
    2012 Spoofing countermeasures for the protection of automatic speaker recognition from attacks with artificial signals Federico Alegre
    Ravichander Vipperla
    Nicholas Evans
    voicetwo new, but trivial countermeasures based on higher-level, dynamic features and voice quality assessment offer varying degrees of protection
    2012 On the vulnerability of automatic speaker recognition to spoofing attacks with artificial signals Federico Alegre
    Ravichander Vipperla
    N.Evans, B.Fauve
    voicebased on artificial, tone-like signals which provoke higher ASV scores than genuine client tests
    2012 Can Gait Biometrics be Spoofed? A.Hadid, M.Ghahramani
    V.Kellokumpu, M.Pietikäinen
    J.Bustard, M.Nixon
    gaithow clothing can be used to spoof a target
    2013
    2013 Sep Spoofing and Anti-Spoofing in Biometrics Sébastien Marcel generalGeneral presentation (Tabula Rasa). Book in preparation.
    2013 Jan BEAT – biometrics evaluation and testing Sébastien Marcel general(biometric technology today)
    2013 Altered Fingerprints: Analysis and Detection Soweon Yoon
    Jianjiang Feng
    Anil K. Jain
    fingerprintfingerprint alteration or obfuscation
    2013 Jul A Challenge to Analyze and Detect Altered Human Fingerprints Chandrakanth Biradar
    Vijeth Rao
    fingerprintClassifying the alterations into three major categories: Obliteration, distortion and imitation and suggesting possible countermeasures
    2013 Aug A Review of the Techniques in Attacks to the Biometric-based Authentication Systems and Fake Fingerprint Detection Methods H. Ebrahimpour-Komleh
    Hossein Malekinezhad
    fingerprintA review of the techniques in direct and indirect attacks to biometric based recognition systems is presented + a summary of the fake fingerprint detection methods.
    2013 Jun Anti-spoofing in action: joint operation with a verification system Ivana Chingovska
    André Anjos
    Sébastien Marcel
    fingerprintdecision level and score-level fusion. Open-source framework for the ternary classification problem
    2013 Contourlet-Based Fingerprint Antispoofing Shankar B. Nikam
    Suneeta Agarwal
    fingerprintImage-based method using Contourlet transform to detect liveness in fingerprint biometric systems
    2013 Aug New Optical Methods for Liveness Detection on Fingers Martin Drahansky
    Michal Dolezel
    Jan Vana, Eva Brezinova
    Jaegeol Yim, K. Shim
    fingerprintmeasurement of the pulse, variations of optical characteristics caused by pressure change, reaction of skin to illumination with different wavelengths.
    2013 Spatial surface coarseness analysis: technique for fingerprint spoof detection L.F.A. Pereira
    H.N.B. Pinheiro
    G.D.C. Cavalcanti
    Tsang Ing Ren
    fingerprintThis approach improves the wavelet analysis of the fingertip surface texture by introducing spatial features to the model
    2013 Spoof Attack Detection in Fingerprint Authentication using Hybrid fusion Chander Kant
    Raksha
    fingerprintMinutiae points and Ridge Bifurcations to investigate spoof attacks
    2013 Certification MorphoSmart Optic 301
    -
    fingerprintFingerprint Spoof Detection Protection Profile based on Organisational Security Policies (FSDPP_OSP), Version1.7, 27 November 2009, BSI-CC-PP-0062-2010
    2013 Jun Biometric System Design Under Zero and Non-Zero Effort Attacks Ajita Rattani
    Norman Poh
    fingerprintuses three generative classifiers, Gaussian Mixture Model, Gaussian Copula, and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis. LivDet11 spoof fingerprint database.
    2013 Sep Fingerprint liveness detection using Binarized Statistical Image Features L.Ghiani, A.Hadid
    GL.Marcialis, F.Roli
    fingerprint a novel ?ngerprint liveness descriptor named “BSIF”
    2013 Apr Survey on fingerprint liveness detection Amani Al-Ajlan fingerprint(list of articles)
    2013 Mar Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup Sven Meissner
    Ralph Breithaupt
    Edmund Koch
    fingerprintSwept Source OCT system with a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 um, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) with overlying fakes
    2013 Feb Fingerprint fake detection by optical coherence tomography Sven Meissner
    Ralph Breithaupt
    Edmund Koch
    fingerprint(likely the same as previous)
    2013 Capturing the vital vascular fingerprint with optical coherence tomography Gangjun Liu
    Zhongping Chen
    fingerprintNovel vital vascular fingerprint system using Doppler optical coherence tomography. Based on blood flow
    2013 Feasibility of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) for anti-spoof sub-surface fingerprinting Azhar Zam
    R.Dsouza, H.Subhash
    ML.O'Connell, J.Enfield
    K.Larin, M.Leahy
    fingerprintsub-surface finger tissue such as sub-surface fingerprints, sweat glands, and the pattern of the capillary bed
    2013 Presentation attack detection methods for fingerprint recognition systems: a survey Ctirad Sousedik
    Christoph Busch
    fingerprintsurvey
    2013 Volumetric Fingerprint Data Analysis using Optical Coherence Tomography Ctirad Sousedik
    Ralph Breithaupt
    Christoph Busch
    fingerprintPresentation Attack Detection method could be developed that would render the artefact production process extremely difficult or even practically impossible
    2013 Multi-scale local binary pattern with filters for spoof fingerprint detection Xiaofei Jia, X.Yang
    K.Cao, Y.Zang, N.Zhang
    R.Dai, X.Zhu, J.Tian
    fingerprintNovel spoof fingerprint detection method based on multi-scale local binary pattern (MSLBP)
    2013 Fake iris detection using structured light Jonathan Connell, Nalini Ratha, James Gentile & Ruud Bolle irisA structured light projection method to detect the presence of artificial items obscuring the real iris
    2013 Database of Iris Printouts and its Application: Development of Liveness Detection Method for Iris Recognition Adam Czajka irisDatabase of iris printout images with a controlled quality, and its fundamental application, development of liveness detection (“alien frequencies” from the printing process)
    2013 Liveness Detection via Oculomotor Plant Characteristics: Attack of Mechanical Replicas Oleg V. Komogortsev
    Alex Karpov
    irisLiveness detection is done via estimation and analysis of the internal non-visible anatomical structure of the human eye termed Oculomotor Plant Characteristics
    2013 Performance Comparison Of Fake Iris Detection Methods Smriti Rastogi
    D. Malathi
    iris4 existing methods of detecting coloured texture lenses and high resolution iris images are compared and analyzed
    2013 Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks Javier Galbally
    Gomez-Barrero, Ross
    Fierrez, Ortega-Garcia
    irisnovel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks
    2013 On the Effectiveness of Local Binary Patterns in Face Anti-spoofing Ivana Chingovska
    André Anjos
    Sébastien Marcel
    faceinspect the potential of texture features based on Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and their variations on attacks: printed photographs, photos, videos
    2013 Computationally Efficient Face Spoofing Detection with Motion Magnification Samarth Bharadwaj
    Tejas I. Dhamecha
    Mayank Vatsa
    Richa Singh
    faceEulerian motion magnification approach is used to enhance the facial expressions commonly exhibited by subjects in a captured video (HOOF).
    2013 Jan Face Tampering Detection from Single Face Image using Gradient Method Aruni Singh
    Shrikant Tiwari
    Sanjay Kumar Singh
    faceDiscrimination of image of tampered face from the image of real face with accuracy ranges 82.7% 91.7%.
    2013 Aug Effect Of Face Tampering On Face Recognition Aruni Singh
    Sanjay Kumar Singh
    facePresent the effect of face tampering on various categories of face recognition algorithms
    2013 Face Liveness Detection with Component Dependent Descriptor Jianwei Yang, Zhen Lei
    Shengcai Liao
    Stan Z. Li
    faceComponent-based face coding approach for liveness detection
    2013 Face Liveness Detection Using 3D Structure Recovered from a Single Camera Tao Wang, Jianwei Yang
    Zhen Lei, S.Liao
    Stan Z. Li
    faceliveness detection approach to counter spoofing attacks by recovering sparse 3D facial structure
    2013 Mar Fake Face Recognition using Fusion of Thermal Imaging and Skin Elasticity Chander Kant
    Nitin Sharma
    faceUser is asked to do some movement like chewing and forehead movement simultaneously, so that a full movement to face skin can be given and then sequence of face images is captured with a gap of few milliseconds
    2013 May Fake Face Detection Based on Skin Elasticity Chander Kant
    Nitin Sharma
    face(same as previous)
    2013 May Thermal Recognition in Biometrics Approach Niketa Vishwanath Patil
    S.U.Kadam
    faceJust an approach.
    2013 Jun Use of visual anchors and eye tracking for liveness detection for face recognition
    -
    faceVisual elements on random part of the screen + eye tracking system to verify that the subject is looking at the elements
    2013 Face Spoofing Detection Using Dynamic Texture Jukka Komulainen
    Abdenour Hadid
    Matti Pietikäinen
    faceContractions of facial muscles which result in temporally deformed facial features such as eye lids and lips
    2013 Shape and Texture Based Countermeasure to Protect Face Recognition Systems Against Mask Attacks Neslihan Kose
    Jean-Luc Dugelay
    faceA 2D+3D mask attacks database is used. Fusion of the information extracted from both the texture and the depth images.
    2013 Reflectance Analysis Based Countermeasure Technique to Detect Face Mask Attacks Neslihan Kose
    Jean-Luc Dugelay
    face(almost the same)
    2013 On the Vulnerability of Face Recognition Systems to Spoofing Mask Attacks Neslihan Kose
    Jean-Luc Dugelay
    face(almost the same)
    2013 Countermeasure for the Protection of Face Recognition Systems Against Mask Attacks Neslihan Kose
    Jean-Luc Dugelay
    face(almost the same)
    2013 Poisoning attacks to compromise face templates Battista Biggio
    Luca Didaci
    G.Fumera, Fabio Roli
    faceby presenting a proper sequence of fake biometric traits to the sensor, the attacker may eventually impersonate the targeted clients without any fake trait
    2013 Complementary Countermeasures for Detecting Scenic Face Spoofing Attacks Jukka Komulainen
    A.Hadid, M.Pietikäinen
    A.Anjos, S.Marcel
    faceFusion of motion and texture based countermeasures under several types of scenic face attacks
    2013 Spoofing countermeasures to protect automatic speaker verification from voice conversion Federico Alegre
    Asmaa Amehraye
    Nicholas Evans
    voiceexploits the common shift applied to the spectral slope of consecutive speech frames involved in the mapping of a spoofer’s voice signal
    2013 A one class classification approach to generalised speaker verification spoofing countermeasures using local binary patterns Federico Alegre
    Asmaa Amehraye
    Nicholas Evans
    voiceAnalysis of speech signals using local binary patterns followed by a one-class classification approach
    2013 A new speaker verification spoofing countermeasure based on local binary patterns Federico Alegre
    Ravichander Vipperla
    A.Amehraye, N.Evans
    voiceAnalysis of speech signals using local binary patterns followed by a one-class classification approach
    2013 Spoofing and countermeasures for automatic speaker verification Nicholas Evans
    Tomi Kinnunen
    Junichi Yamagishi
    voiceDescribes some specific vulnerabilities studied in the literature + brief survey of recent work to develop spoofing countermeasures.
    2013 Improving Gait Biometrics under Spoofing Attacks Abdenour Hadid
    M.Ghahramani
    J.Bustard, M.Nixon
    gaitInitial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks using part-based gait analysis