Face recognition / Reconnaissance du visage

Face recognition uses mainly the following techniques:

face recognition cartoon

La reconnaissance du visage (ou reconnaissance faciale) utilisent principalement les techniques suivantes:

See also the specific page on smartphone using 3D face recognition.

For more information, as a start, get a look at Face Recognition Beyond the Visible Spectrum (paper also available on ResearchGate). You will find that it's possible to use the vascular network of the face, more détail in my page related to vein recognition.

un danger pour l'identité ?

JF.Mainguet se prend la tête
JF Mainguet vous prend la tête avec ses sornettes

La version Internet de mon intervention orale à Midi-Minatec, le 1 juillet 2022, où je réponds à la question de savoir si les deepfakes présenteront un danger pour les systèmes sensés nous identifier.

Facial geometry / Géométrie du visage

Many different methods based on geometrical characteristics of the face have been developped such as "local feature analysis", "Eigenface or Principal Component Analysis", ...

Extraction de points caractéristiques

Skin pattern recognition / Structure de la peau

Delean Vision (now Identix) developped Visual Skin Print, that uses pattern matching of the face skin.

Comparaison de deux vraies jumelles

Visual Skin Print™ relies on standard hardware - most web-cams and higher resolution mass-market video cameras, connected to a PC, will work. Visual Skin Print™ is based on a simple yet powerful idea: using the details of the skin for authentication.

Facial thermogram / Thermogramme du visage

Facial thermogram requires an (expensive) infrared camera to detect the facial heat patterns that are unique to every human being. Technology Recognition Systems worked on that subject in 1996-1999. Now disappeared.

Le thermogramme du visage requiert une caméra infrarouge (chère) pour détecter la répartition de température du visage particulière à chaque être humain. Technology Recognition Systems travailla sur ce thème vers 1996-1999, maintenant disparu.

Thermogramme de la face

"Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images" (Zhihong Pan, Glenn Healey, Manish Prasad, Bruce Tromberg, 2003) is an article describing a variant using several wavelentghs.

Side effect: can detect lies
The image on the left shows his normal facial thermogram, and the image on the right shows the temperature changes when he lied.
L'image de gauche montre un thermogramme du visage sous conditions normales, et l'image de droite lors d'un mensonge, montrant les changements de température.

from Think thermally may 2002

Long-wave-infrared (LWIR) polarimetric-based thermal images

The polarimetric images show enhanced facial features, additional texture, and details that are not present in corresponding conventional thermal imagery.

Vascular network, vein, blood vessels / réseau vasculaire

For more details, have a look at my page about vein recognition.

face vein recognition

Smile recognition / Reconnaissance du sourire

The Stony Brook university system relies on probing the characteristic pattern of muscles beneath the skin of the face.
Guan takes two snaps of a person in quick succession, asking subjects to smile for the camera. He then uses a computer to analyse how the skin around the subject's mouth moves between the two images. The software does this by tracking changes in the position of tiny wrinkles in the skin, each just a fraction of a millimetre wide.
The data is used to produce an image of the face overlaid with tiny arrows that indicate how different areas of skin move during a smile. This movement is controlled by the pattern of muscles under the skin, and is not affected by the presence of make-up or the size of the subject's smile. The system is sensitive enough to produce such a map from muscle twitches even when people are trying to keep their expression unchanged.
Note: tested on 4 subjects (!).


L'université de Stony Brook met au point un système qui lit les plis de la peau provoqués par les muscles de la face lorsque l'on sourit.
Guan prend rapidement deux photos successives en demandant de sourire. Puis il analyse les mouvements de la peau autours de la bouche, de l'ordre du mm.
L'image du visage est recouvert par de petites flèches qui indiquent les mouvements relevés en souriant. Ces mouvements sont controlés par les muscles sous la peau, peu susceptibles d'être affectés par le maquillage ou l'amplitude du sourire. Le système serait suffisamment sensible pour mesurer les changements même si le sujet essaye de garder son expression inchangée.
Nota: test réalisé sur 4 sujets (!).

Dynamic facial features / Reconnaissance faciale dynamique

In "A Dynamic Approach to Face Recognition" paper, a new method for face recognition is proposed, which is based on dynamic instead of static facial features. They track the motion of certain features on the face during a facial expression and obtain a vector field that characterizes the deformation of the face.

In the training process, two high-resolution images of an individual, one with a neutral expression and the other with a facial expression, like a subtle smile, are taken to obtain the deformation field.

This is a Joint Project between Stony Brook University (SUNY) and New York State Strategic Center for Port and Maritime Security, SUNY Maritime.

Il s'agit de détecter les déformations du visage liées à une expression du visage.

Facial expression of identical twins

3D face recognition with LIDAR

Face recognition LIDAR SVI

Makeup challenges automated face recognition systems

How To Hide Your Face From Big Brother? Try Sunglasses.

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